Nanostructures are the elementary building blocks of nanoelectronic, nanophotonic and nanomechanic devices. In the same terms, the low-dimensional systems of electrons represent a material for nanostructures manufacturing. However, the most important for solid state research is that the low-dimensional electron system with a thickness of the order of Fermi wavelength (~10-30nm) is an artificial macroscopic quantum object, ideal for basic physical research. Namely in this object such effects have been discovered as integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, reentrant transitions between the insulator and quantized Hall conductor, Hall insulator, collective electron solid state (pinned Wigner crystal) etc. This list is far not complete and there are many other effects in nanostructures yet to be studied and understood.
In the SCES lab we study nanostructures – GaAs-AlGaAs multilayered superlattices, generating THz radiation, single-electron transistors and various devices on their base. Very interesting is the emerging field of nanomechanics. Particularly, in collaboration with Lancaster University a nanoelectromechanical transducer has been developed, capable of transducing mechanical vibrations into the electromagnetic waves. The device of the sub-micrometer size consists of superconducting single-electron transistor, fabricated a top of the suspended 100MHz- resonator – Al-bridge of 500nm length and 30nm thickness. Such device represents a quantum-mechanical system possessing a mechanical degree of freedom. The exciting physics of the single-electron nanostructures is studied in the SCES lab at mK temperatures in order to reveal the true quantum properties not masked by the thermal motion.